SCIB1 combined with PD-1 blockade induced efficient therapy of poorly immunogenic tumors (2016)
Wei Xue, Victoria A. Brentville, Peter Symonds, Katherine W. Cook, Hideo Yagita, Rachael L. Metheringham and Lindy G. Durrant
Purpose: We have previously shown that supraoptimal signaling of high avidity T cells leads to high expression of PD-1 and inhibition of proliferation. This study was designed to see if this effect could be mitigated by combining a vaccine that stimulates high avidity T cells with PD-1 blockade.
Experimental Design: We investigated the anti-tumor effect of a huIgG1 antibody DNA vaccine (SCIB1) and PD-1 blockade.
Results: Vaccination of HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with SCIB1 induced high frequency and avidity T cell responses that resulted in survival (40%) of mice with established B16F1-DR4 tumors. SCIB1 vaccination was associated with increased infiltration of CD4 and CD8 T cells within the tumor but was also associated with upregulation of PD-L1 within the tumor environment. PD-1 blockade also resulted in increased CD8 T cell infiltration and an anti-tumor response with 50% of mice showing long term survival.In line with our hypothesis that PD-1/PD-L1 signaling results in inhibition of proliferation of high avidity T cells at the tumor site, the combination of PD-1 blockade with vaccination, enhanced the number and proliferation of the CD8 tumor infiltrate. This resulted in a potent anti-tumor response with 80% survival of the mice.
Conclusions: There is a benefit in combining PD-1 blockade with vaccines that induce high avidity T cell responses and in particular with SCIB1.